yellow fever vaccination certificate is required from travellers over
one year of age arriving from infected areas. Countries and areas
included in endemic zones are considered to be infected areas.
Diarrhea is mostly
caused by ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with bacteria or
viruses. To prevent diarrhea, aviod uncooked food and drink only
boiled or bottled or carbonated water. Food served at street vendors
should be considered at risk. Fresh vegetables and fruits should be
adequately washed with clean water. Fresh salad should be taken only
from a salad bar or a restaurant of hygienic standard.
Tap water in many Southeast Asian citis is claimed to be safe for
drinking, but it is still advisable to stick to safety precautions.
diarrhea primarily is the result of the loss of water and electrolytes
from the body. If you happen to have diarrhea during your travel, the
most helpful remedy is drinking electrolyte solution to replace the
loss. Therefore, it is always useful to keep some electrolyte solution
packets in your first-aid kit. If your diarrhea gets worse or does not
improve within 12-24 hours, consult the physicians for proper
investigation and treatment.
There are two
major groups of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis spread by contaminated food
and water, hepatitis A and E, are endemic in many parts of Asia. Most
local people are immune to these types of hepatitis through natural
infection, but travellers from better hygienic environments can be
receptive to infection. Therefore, travellers are recommended to
practice prevention measures against food and water borne diseases, as
suggested for diarrhea. An alternative protection for hepatitis A is
the immunization with hyperimmune serum or hepatitis A vaccine.
Consult with the physician at an established medical service for the
Another group of
hepatitis; hepatitis B,C and D; are transmitted through contaminated
blood and sexual contacts, or passed from infected mothers to their
babies at the time of birth; similar to the ways HIV/AIDS is
transmitted. This group of hepatitis can be simultaneously and
effectively avoided if precautions against HIV/AIDS are strictly
taken. However, for those who require immunization, effective vaccine
against hepatitis B is available at most medical services.
fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever:
These diseases are
endemic in Southeast Asia. They are caused by dengue virus from the
bite of aedes mosquito that lives in the houses and their
neighbourhoods. This mosquito bites during the day time. Dengue
infection in local people, mostly children, often results in fever
with bleeding in the skin and other organs (dengue hemorrhagic fever)
which is sometime fatal; but for travellers from non-endemic areas,
the infection usually minifests as fever with rash in the skin, severe
headache and muscle and pains (dengue fever), which is usually
is common in the rainy season (approximately May to September in
Thailand) when aedes mosquito is abundant. Travellers visiting local
households or their vicinity, especially in the rainy season, should
be using mosquito repellent even in the day time. Ones who are ill
with symptoms suspected of dengue infection should seek medical
consultation to establish the cause of the illness.
infection of the brain, is contracted through the bite of mosquitoes
that prevail in rural agricultural areas. It is found in many Eastern
and Southeastern Asian countries, primarily in the rural and suburban
areas. Similar to malaria, the disease can be prevented by avoiding
mosquito bite during the night time. Travellers who plan to spend
their time exposing to rural environment in these regions for over
several months are recommended to take Japanese encephalitis
vaccination before entry.
Typhoid fever has
become uncommon among Thai people. However, travellers should not
neglect taking prevention against this food and water borne disease.
Precaution measures for diarrhea, as mentioned later, are effective
for typhoid as well. It is also recommended that the travellers
receive typhoid vaccination, in injectable or oral form, before start
of the journey. However, those who need initiation or booster
vaccination can findthe service at most hospitals and clinics in
Bangkok and most
provinces in the central region as well as major tourist resorts such
as Chiang Mai, Phuket, Hua-Hin and Samui Island have been free from
malaria for decades. Now all cities in Thailand are malaria free.
However, tourist destinations in rural neighbourhoods, especially
those in the mountainous and border areas are still at certain risks.
Chloroquine and most other chemoprophylactic drugs have proved to be
ineffective against falciparum malaria in Thailand. Tourists visiting
these endemic areas are rather recommended to take general precautions
against mosquito bite. After sunset, they should sty in screened
quarters or mosquito nets, wear longsleeves shirts and pants, and may
apply mosquito repellents. Those who develop fever within two weeks of
entry to risk areas should seek prompt medical examination and
transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS:
remains the most common treatable sexaully transmitted disease (STD)
among tourists to Asia. Gonorrhea from Southeast Asis is frequently
multi-drug resistant. While syphilis become less common, HIV/AIDS is
spreading at worrisome speeds in most Asian countries, resulting
mostly from unprotected sexual contacts. Promiscuous sex anywhere can
be dangerous. For travellers, local sex workers, either of explicite
or concealed types, are potential sources of STDs and HIV/AIDS. All
casual sex should be avoided or strictly protected with the use of
Rabies can be
found mainly in dogs. Although Thailand has been working toward
elimination of the disease and the situation has been much improved,
travellers are recommended to take prevention if their travel
itineraries allow possible exposure to animals bite. Those who plan
walking sight-seeing in local communities should consider having
pre-exposure rabies vaccination before starting off. Three
intramuscular injections of cell-culture rabies vaccine are required.
In case of exposure to animals without prior vaccination, the
pose-exposure vaccination is usually effective if it is initiated
without delay. However, for those who have had pre-exposure
vaccination, if they are bitten, they should also seek prompt
consultation with the physician for evaluation and consideration for
Hospitals in Bangkok
International Medical Center (IMC) in Bangkok,
a department especially for foreigners.
They speak 18 languages here (also English, German,
Dutch, Japanese, French, etc.).
Telephone: 02 - 310 3101-2 or 3106